module #include "diplib/statistics.h"
Error measures Quantifying the difference between images.
Classes

struct dip::
SpatialOverlapMetrics  Holds return values for the function
dip::SpatialOverlap
.
Functions

auto dip::
MeanError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the mean error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
MeanSquareError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the mean square error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
RootMeanSquareError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the root mean square (RMS) error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
MeanAbsoluteError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the mean absolute error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
MaximumAbsoluteError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the maximum absolute error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
MeanRelativeError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the mean relative error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
MaximumRelativeError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the maximum relative error difference between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
IDivergence (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the Idivergence between corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
InProduct (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the sum of the product of corresponding sample values of
in
andreference
. 
auto dip::
LnNormError (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}, dip::dfloat order = 2.0) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the
order
norm difference between corresponding sample values ofin
andreference
. 
auto dip::
PSNR (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}, dip::dfloat peakSignal = 0.0) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the peak signaltonoise ratio, in dB.

auto dip::
SSIM (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}, dip::dfloat sigma = 1.5, dip::dfloat K1 = 0.01, dip::dfloat K2 = 0.03) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the structural similarity index (a visual similarity measure)

auto dip::
MutualInformation (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference, dip::Image const& mask = {}, dip::uint nBins = 256) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the mutual information, in bits, using a histogram with
nBins
bynBins
bins. 
auto dip::
SpatialOverlap (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::SpatialOverlapMetrics  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
. 
auto dip::
DiceCoefficient (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
, determining the Dice coefficient. 
auto dip::
JaccardIndex (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
, determining the Jaccard index. 
auto dip::
Specificity (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
, determining the specificity of the segmentation. 
auto dip::
Sensitivity (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
, determining the sensitivity of the segmentation. 
auto dip::
Accuracy (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
, determining the accuracy of the segmentation. 
auto dip::
Precision (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Compares a segmentation result
in
to the ground truthreference
, determining the precision of the segmentation. 
auto dip::
HausdorffDistance (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Computes the Hausdorff distance between two binary images.

auto dip::
ModifiedHausdorffDistance (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Computes the modified Hausdorff distance between two binary images.

auto dip::
SumOfMinimalDistances (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Computes the sum of minimal distances (SMD) between two binary images.

auto dip::
ComplementWeightedSumOfMinimalDistances (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& reference) > dip::dfloat  Computes the complement weighted sum of minimal distances (CWSMD) between two binary images.

auto dip::
Entropy (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& mask = {}, dip::uint nBins = 256) > dip::dfloat  Calculates the entropy, in bits, using a histogram with
nBins
bins. 
auto dip::
EstimateNoiseVariance (dip::Image const& in, dip::Image const& mask = {}) > dip::dfloat  Estimates the variance of white Gaussian noise in an image.
Class documentation
struct dip::SpatialOverlapMetrics
Holds return values for the function dip::SpatialOverlap
.
Variables  

dip::dfloat truePositives  Number of true positives 
dip::dfloat trueNegatives  Number of true negatives 
dip::dfloat falsePositives  Number of false positives 
dip::dfloat falseNegatives  Number of false negatives 
dip::dfloat diceCoefficient 
The F1measure, harmonic mean between precision (PPV) and sensitivity (recall, TPR).

dip::dfloat jaccardIndex  The ratio of the intersection to the union. 
dip::dfloat sensitivity  Also called recall, true positive rate (TPR). 
dip::dfloat specificity  Also called true negative rate (TNR). 
dip::dfloat fallout  Also called false positive rate (FPR), equal to 1specificity. 
dip::dfloat accuracy  Fraction of correctly segmented pixels. 
dip::dfloat precision  Also called positive predictive value (PPV). 
Function documentation
dip::dfloat
dip::MeanError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the mean error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
Complex input is not allowed, use dip::MeanAbsoluteError
instead.
dip::dfloat
dip::MeanSquareError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the mean square error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match. For complex input, uses the modulus of the differences.
dip::dfloat
dip::RootMeanSquareError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the root mean square (RMS) error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match. For complex input, uses the modulus of the differences.
dip::dfloat
dip::MeanAbsoluteError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the mean absolute error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::dfloat
dip::MaximumAbsoluteError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the maximum absolute error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::dfloat
dip::MeanRelativeError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the mean relative error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
The relative error is defined as
This definition is symmetric, and avoids issues caused by reference
having a zero value.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::dfloat
dip::MaximumRelativeError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the maximum relative error difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
The relative error is defined as
This definition is symmetric, and avoids issues caused by reference
having a zero value.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::dfloat
dip::IDivergence (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the Idivergence between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
The IDivergence is defined as
and is divided by the number of pixels. It is the log of a Poisson distribution with the stirling approximation for . For , where the stirling approximation would fail, is returned.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match. Complex input is not allowed.
dip::dfloat
dip::InProduct (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Calculates the sum of the product of corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
The sum of the product of in
and reference
corresponds to the value of the crosscorrelation function at zero
displacement (see dip::CrossCorrelationFT
) and is a measure of correlation between the two images.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match. Complex input is not allowed.
dip::dfloat
dip::LnNormError (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {},
dip::dfloat order = 2.0)
Calculates the order
norm difference between corresponding sample values of in
and reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match. For complex input, uses the modulus of the differences.
dip::dfloat
dip::PSNR (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {},
dip::dfloat peakSignal = 0.0)
Calculates the peak signaltonoise ratio, in dB.
PSNR is defined as
with the peak signal given by peakSignal
, MSE being the mean square error and RMSE the root mean square error.
If peakSignal<=0
, computes the peak signal as the difference between maximum and minimum in reference
.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::dfloat
dip::SSIM (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {},
dip::dfloat sigma = 1.5,
dip::dfloat K1 = 0.01,
dip::dfloat K2 = 0.03)
Calculates the structural similarity index (a visual similarity measure)
Returns the average SSIM, computed locally in a Gaussian window of size sigma
, using constants
K1
and K2
. These two constants should be small (<<1) positive values and serve to avoid instabilities.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
The two input images must be realvalued. Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::dfloat
dip::MutualInformation (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference,
dip::Image const& mask = {},
dip::uint nBins = 256)
Calculates the mutual information, in bits, using a histogram with nBins
bynBins
bins.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
The two input images must be realvalued and scalar. Singleton expansion is applied if the image sizes don’t match.
dip::SpatialOverlapMetrics
dip::SpatialOverlap (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
.
Both in
and reference
are expected to be either binary images, or realvalued images in the range [0,1]
indicating likelihoods (i.e. a fuzzy segmentation). If images contain values outside that range, the results
will be meaningless. Both images must be scalar and of the same sizes.
If only one measure is of interest, it will be more efficient to use one of the specialized functions:
dip::DiceCoefficient
, dip::JaccardIndex
, dip::Specificity
, dip::Sensitivity
, dip::Accuracy
,
or dip::Precision
.
dip::dfloat
dip::DiceCoefficient (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
, determining the Dice coefficient.
The Dice coefficient (also known as Sørensen–Dice coefficient) is defined as twice the area of the intersection
of in
and reference
divided by the sum of their areas,
The Dice coefficient is equivalent to the harmonic mean between precision and sensitivity or recall (i.e. the F_{1} score):
dfloat dice = dip::DiceCoefficient( a, b ); dfloat alsoDice = 2.0 / ( 1.0 / dip::Precision( a, b ) + 1.0 / dip::Sensitivity( a, b ));
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and either binary or realvalued. Realvalued inputs will be considered as fuzzy segmentations, and expected to be in the range [0,1].
dip::dfloat
dip::JaccardIndex (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
, determining the Jaccard index.
The Jaccard index is defined as the area of the intersection of in
and reference
divided by their union,
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and either binary or realvalued. Realvalued inputs will be considered as fuzzy segmentations, and expected to be in the range [0,1].
dip::dfloat
dip::Specificity (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
, determining the specificity of the segmentation.
Specificity is also referred to as True Negative Rate, and is computed as the ratio of true negatives to the
total amount of negatives in the reference
image,
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and either binary or realvalued. Realvalued inputs will be considered as fuzzy segmentations, and expected to be in the range [0,1].
dip::dfloat
dip::Sensitivity (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
, determining the sensitivity of the segmentation.
Sensitivity, also referred to as recall or True Positive Rate, is computed as the ratio of the true positives
to the total amount of positives in the reference
image,
Note that precision and sensitivity are each others mirror, that is, precision yields the same result as sensitivity with switched input images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and either binary or realvalued. Realvalued inputs will be considered as fuzzy segmentations, and expected to be in the range [0,1].
dip::dfloat
dip::Accuracy (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
, determining the accuracy of the segmentation.
Accuracy is defined as the ratio of correctly classified pixels to the total number of pixels,
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and either binary or realvalued. Realvalued inputs will be considered as fuzzy segmentations, and expected to be in the range [0,1].
dip::dfloat
dip::Precision (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Compares a segmentation result in
to the ground truth reference
, determining the precision of the segmentation.
Precision, or Positive Predictive Value, is defined as the ratio of the true positives to the total amount of
positives in the in
image,
Note that precision and sensitivity are each others mirror, that is, precision yields the same result as sensitivity with switched input images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and either binary or realvalued. Realvalued inputs will be considered as fuzzy segmentations, and expected to be in the range [0,1].
dip::dfloat
dip::HausdorffDistance (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Computes the Hausdorff distance between two binary images.
The Hausdorff distance is the largest distance one can find between a point in one set and the nearest point in the other set.
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and binary.
dip::dfloat
dip::ModifiedHausdorffDistance (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Computes the modified Hausdorff distance between two binary images.
The modified Hausdorff distance is the average distance between a point in one set and the nearest point in the other set. The measure is made symmetric by swapping the two sets and using the largest obtained result.
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and binary.
dip::dfloat
dip::SumOfMinimalDistances (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Computes the sum of minimal distances (SMD) between two binary images.
The sum of minimal distances is the sum of distances between a point in one set and the nearest point in the other set. The measure is made symmetric by swapping the two sets and averaging the results.
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and binary.
dip::dfloat
dip::ComplementWeightedSumOfMinimalDistances (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& reference)
Computes the complement weighted sum of minimal distances (CWSMD) between two binary images.
The complement weighted sum of minimal distances is the weighted sum of distances between a point in the first set and the nearest point in the second set. The weights are given by the distance of the point in the first set to its boundary. The measure is made symmetric by swapping the two sets and summing the results.
Note that this measure is symmetric, that is, it yields the same result if one switches the two images.
The two input images must have the same sizes, be scalar, and binary.
dip::dfloat
dip::Entropy (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& mask = {},
dip::uint nBins = 256)
Calculates the entropy, in bits, using a histogram with nBins
bins.
Optionally the mask
image can be used to exclude pixels from the calculation by setting the value of
these pixels in mask
to zero.
The input image must be realvalued and scalar.
dip::dfloat
dip::EstimateNoiseVariance (dip::Image const& in,
dip::Image const& mask = {})
Estimates the variance of white Gaussian noise in an image.
The method assumes white (uncorrelated) noise, with a Gaussian distribution and zero mean. It may fail if the image contains complex or finegrained texture.
If mask
is not given, creates a mask that avoids edge regions.